Percutaneous spinal fusion
This is the most modern spinal fusion technique. It is basically the posterior lumbar fusion with screws and bars that are placed percutaneously (with no long incision, but with several small incisions 2cm long each) with the assistance of the portable X-ray machine (C-arm).
It is a minimally invasive surgery, just like kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty, because the interference with the healthy tissues surrounding the vertebrae is very small. For this reason, there is almost no loss of blood and thus no blood transfusion is required. Postoperative pain is minimal and the patient can return to everyday activities very soon.
The definite indication for this method is spinal instability (spondylolisthesis or vertebra translocation and instable fractures) to one or two levels with or without stenosis or disc herniation.
This technique can be combined with simultaneous or later decompressive laminectomy or discectomy with no additional incision required.