From the embryonic life, nerve elements are surrounded and protected bythespinalbonestructureand arecloselyconnectedto them. Therefore, spinal surgery requires a hybrid of two specialties, Neurosurgery and Orthopedics. This means that the spine surgeon is specialized with a particular skill set and knowledge that allow them to respond to spinal surgery requirements.
Nowadays with the rapid technological advancements, the classic spine surgeon has become a delicate microsurgeon because the use of the surgical microscope, the surgical instruments, O-arm (surgical imaging system), and neuronavigation,as well as surgical neuromonitoring, has almost eliminated neurological complications postoperatively.
Moreover, the modern spine surgeon can choose between classic (open) neurosurgery techniques and modern, minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) providing complete solutions to spinal problems.